Perkembangan Drone Tempur dan Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia di Timur Tengah dan Ukraina

Aufa Rabbi Fudhali


The development of drone technology is utilized by various parties with various backgrounds, including the defense sector and international security sectors. Unmanned combat aerial vehicles or combat drones are considered to be pioneers in contemporary warfare. Apart from civilian needs, drones in the world of defense and intelligence are often used for combat missions with the aim of eliminating targets, including killing non-combatants. This can be defined as the process of violating human rights, according to international humanitarian law. The use of drones often causes collateral damage that results in casualties, which according to Allison Brysk can be called a violation of security rights. This paper with qualitative research and literature study aims to answer the research questions regarding the development of unmanned aircraft for combat missions and allegations of human rights violations. With conducting in-depth research, it is argued that the use of drones for combat missions continues to occur and there are more and more variants and users, apart from state actors there are also non-state actors, although limited. It concludes, such a missions in Ukraine and in Middle East are often successful, but there is collateral damage that affected civilian casualties and civilian infrastructure.

Perkembangan teknologi drone dimanfaatkan oleh berbagai pihak dengan berbagai latar belakang, termasuk sektor pertahanan dan keamanan internasional. Pesawat tempur nirawak atau combat drone dianggap telah menjadi pelopor dalam peperangan kekinian. Di samping untuk kebutuhan sipil, drone di dunia pertahanan dan intelijen penggunaannya seringkali ditujukan untuk misi tempur dengan tujuan mengeliminasi sasaran, termasuk membunuh. Hal ini dapat didefinisikan sebagai proses dari pelanggaran hak asasi manusia (HAM) menurut international humanitarian law apabila menyerang sesuatu yang bukan semestinya, seperti rakyat sipil. Penggunaan drone untuk tempur seringkali menimbulkan collateral damage yang merenggut korban jiwa, yang menurut Allison Brysk bisa disebut sebagai pelanggaran security rights. Tulisan ini memiliki metode penelitian kualitatif dengan studi literatur, hal ini bertujuan untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian mengenai bagaimana perkembangan dari pesawat nirawak untuk misi tempur serta dugaan dalam pelanggaran hak asasi manusia. Dengan studi kualitatif melakukan penelitian secara mendalam, berargumentasi bahwasannya riset dan penggunaan drone untuk misi tempur terus terjadi dan semakin banyak variannya serta penggunanya, selain aktor negara juga terdapat aktor non-negara meskipun terbatas. Penelitian ini berkesimpulan bahwa misi pesawat nirawak di Ukraina dan di Timur Tengah seringkali mengalami keberhasilan dalam pelaksanaannya, namun tidak jarang terdapat collateral damage yang menimbulkan korban jiwa dari warga sipil atau kerusakan infrastruktur sipil.


drone tempur; hak asasi manusia; Timur Tengah dan Ukraina

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