Erik Priyo Santoso, Eka Fitasari, Veronika Togola, Robertus Aba Leuhapu


This research aimed to determine the effect of a combination of feed protein levels and threonine, namely feed formulations with crude protein (PK) levels of 19%, 18%, and 17% combined with the addition of the amino acid threonine 100%, 110%, and 120%. The research used a Completely Randomized Design Method repeated three times. The parameters measured in this study were production performance (feed consumption, body weight gain, FCR, feed efficiency) and digestibility (metabolic energy and N retention). The combination of feed PK and threonine content did not significantly affect all parameters (p>0.05). Feed PK significantly affected feed consumption, FCR value, and N retention value. The results showed that the highest body weight gain was in 80-day-old chickens produced in the 18% PK treatment 1264.43 gr/head and decreased in the 17% CP treatment. The highest feed efficiency occurred in the PK 18% treatment at 34.99%. The 18% protein at all threonine levels gave an AMEn value with an average value of 3418.15 Kcal/kg and N Retention with a value of 89.12%. Feed treatment with a protein content of 18% combined with 100%, 110%, and 120% threonine treatment gave the best results in body weight gain and feed efficiency.


body weight gain; feed consumption; feed efficiency; nitrogen retention; threonine.

Full Text:



Ahmad, I., Qaisrani, S. N., Azam, F., Pasha, T. N., Bibi, F., Naveed, S., & Murtaza, S. 2020. Interactive effects of threonine levels and protein source on growth performance and carcass traits, gut morphology, ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids, and immunity in broilers. Poultry Science, 99(1), 280–289.

Afria A, Sjofjan, O. U. E,. dan Widodo E. 2013. Effect Of Addition Of Choline Chloride In Feed On Quail ( coturnix coturnix japonica ) Production Performance. Jurnal. Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang

Akrabawi, S. S., & Kratzer, F. H. 1968. Effects of arginine or serine on the requirement for glycine by the chick. Journal of Nutrition, 95(1), 41–48.

Azzam, M. M. M., Dong, X. Y., Xie, P., & Zou, X. T. 2012. Influence of L-threonine supplementation on goblet cell numbers, histological structure and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens reared in a hot and humid climate. British Poultry Science, 53(5), 640–645.

Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). 2022. Populasi Ayam Buras menurut Propinsi (Ekor), 2021-2022. Diakses 1 Desember 2023.

Barekatain, R., Nattrass, G., Tilbrook, A. J., Chousalkar, K., & Gilani, S. 2019. Reduced protein diet and amino acid concentration alter intestinal barrier function and performance of broiler chickens with or without synthetic glucocorticoid. Poultry Science, 98(9), 3662–3675.

Berres, J., Vieira, S. L., Coneglian, J. L. B., Olmos, A. R., De Freitas, D. M., Bortolini, T. C. K., & Da Silva, G. X. 2007. Broiler responses to graded increases in the threonine to lysine ratio. Ciencia Rural, 37(2), 510–517.

Chen, X., Naehrer, K., & Applegate, T. J. 2016. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 95(6), 1312–1325.

Dady, Z., J.S. Mandey, M.R. Imbar, M.N. Regar. 2016. Nilai Retensi Nitrogen dan Energi Metabolis Ransum Menggunakan Daun Murbei (Morus alba) Segar Pada Broiler. J. Zootek (“Zootek J.), Vol. 36 (1): 42-50

Debnath, B. C., Biswas, P., & Roy, B. 2019. The effects of supplemental threonine on performance, carcass characteristics, immune response and gut health of broilers in subtropics during pre-starter and starter period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 103(1), 29–40.

Dewi, G.A.M.K. dan I.W. Wijana. 2010. Pengaruh Penggunaan Level Energi – Protein Ransum Terhadap Produksi Ayam Kampung. The Excellence Research Universitas Udayana 2011 : 64 – 68

Fitasari, E., Reo, K., & Niswi, N. 2016. Penggunaan kadar protein berbeda pada ayam kampung terhadap penampilan produksi dan kecernaan protein. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan, 26(2), 73–83.

Ji, S., Qi, X., Ma, S., Liu, X., & Min, Y. 2019. Effects of dietary threonine levels on intestinal immunity and antioxidant capacity based on cecal metabolites and transcription sequencing of broiler. Animals, 9(10), 1–13.

Julendra, H., Zuprizal dan Supadmo. 2010. Penggunaan Tepung Cacing Tanah (Lumbricus Rubellus) Sebagai Aditif Pakan Terhadap Produksi Ayam Pedaging, Profil Darah dan Kecernaan Protein. Buletin Peternakan. 34(1): 21-29

Kidd, M. T., Maynard, C. W., & Mullenix, G. J. 2021. Progress of amino acid nutrition for diet protein reduction in poultry. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 12(1), 1–9. Kidd, M. T., and Kerr, B. J., 1996. L-threonine for Poultry : A review. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 5:358-367.

Made L. S., S. Tantalo dan K. Nova. 2017. Performa Ayam Kub (Kampung Unggul Balitnak) Periode Grower Pada Pemberian Ransum Dengan Kadar Protein Kasar yang Berbeda. Jurnal Riset dan Inovasi Peternakan Vol 1(3):36-41

Ma’rifah, B., Atmomarsono, U., & Suthama, N. 2013. Nitrogen Retention and Productive Performance of Crossbred Native Chicken Due to Feeding Effect of Kayambang (Salvinia molesta). International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(1), 19–23.

N.R.C. 1994. Nutrient Requirement for Poultry. National Research Council, Washington D.C. USA.

Pesti, G. M. 2009. Impact of dietary amino acid and crude protein levels in broiler feeds on biological performance. Journal Appl. Poultry. Res. 18 : 477-486.

Rémond, D., Buffière, C., Godin, J. P., Mirand, P. P., Obled, C., Papet, I., Dardevet, D., Williamson, G., Breuillé, D., & Faure, M. 2009. Intestinal inflammation increases gastrointestinal threonine uptake and mucin synthesis in enterally fed minipigs. Journal of Nutrition, 139(4), 720–726.

Rositawati, I, Saifut, N., and Muharlien. 2010. Upaya Peningkatan Performan Itik Mojosari Periode Starter Melalui Penambahan Temulawak (Curcuma Xanthoriza, Roxb) Pada Pakan. J. Ternak Tropika Vol 11, No 2:32-40, 2010.

Saputra, W.Y. Mahfudz, L.D. dan N. Suthama 2013. Pemberian Pakan Single Step Down Dengan Penambahan Asam Sitrat Sebagai Acidifer Terhadap Performa Pertumbuhan Broiler. Animal Agicultur Journal 2(3):61- 7.

Scott, M. L., M. C. Neisheim and R. J. Young. l982. Nutrition of The Chicken 3rd

Edition. Scott, M.L. and Associates. Ithaca. New York

Sibbald, I. R. 1975. The effect of level of feed intake on metabolizem energy value. Adult of Roasters. Journal Poultry. Sci 54: 130-14

Shirisha, R., Bu, U., & Prashanth, K. 2018. Effect of L-Threonine supplementation on broiler chicken: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 7(3), 490–493.

Sigolo, S., Zohrabi, Z., Gallo, A., Seidavi, A., & Prandini, A. 2017. Effect of a low crude protein diet supplemented with different levels of threonine on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, and immune responses of growing broilers. Poultry Science, 96(8), 2751–2760.

Tillman, A. D., H. Hartadi, S. Reksohadiprodjo, S. Prawirokusumo, S. Lebdosoekojo. 1991. Ilmu Makanan Ternak Dasar. Gadjah Mada University Press, Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., Babaee, M. J., Afrooziyeh, M., & Alizadeh, B. (2013). Estimation of dietary threonine requirement for growth and immune responses of broilers. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 41(4), 474–483.

Trevisi, P., Corrent, E., Mazzoni, M., Messori, S., Priori, D., Gherpelli, Y., Simongiovanni, A., & Bosi, P. (2015). Effect of added dietary threonine on growth performance, health, immunity and gastrointestinal function of weaning pigs with differing genetic susceptibility to Escherichia coli infection and challenged with E. coli K88ac. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 99(3), 511–520.

Wahyu, J., 2004. Ilmu Nutrisi Unggas. Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta

Wang, W., Zeng, X., Mao, X., Wu, G., & Qiao, S. (2010). Optimal dietary true ileal digestible threonine for supporting the mucosal barrier in small intestine of weanling pigs. Journal of Nutrition, 140(5), 981–986.

Wu, Z., Hu, T., Rothwell, L., Vervelde, L., Kaiser, P., Boulton, K., Nolan, M. J., Tomley, F. M., Blake, D. P., & Hume, D. A. (2016). Analysis of the function of IL-10 in chickens using specific neutralising antibodies and a sensitive capture ELISA. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 63, 206–212.

Yamin, M. 2002. Pengaruh tingkat protein ransum terhadap konsumsi pertambahan bobot badan dan IOFC ayam buras umur 0-8 minggu. Jurnal Agroland Vol.9 No. 3 September 2002.

Abstract - Print this article - Indexing metadata - How to cite item - Finding References - Email this article (Login required) - Email the author (Login required)


  • There are currently no refbacks.